"KUMPULAN CONTOH SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS THE USING OF PICTURE TO IMPROVE STUDENT’S ABILITY IN WRITING A DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH"
English means that teach the students not only how to speak, how to
read, how to listen, but also how to write. Also, talking about English
means talking about how to communicate in English. Communication not
only can be done in spoken but also in written. Most of students
consider that writing is the hardest skill to master, because the
ability to write in foreign language is more complicated than the
ability to speak, read, or listen. It is hard to teach students how to
write because it involves many components such as structure, vocabulary,
punctuation, and spelling. In writing, we will also find many kinds of
texts, one of them is descriptive text. People consider that
descriptive text is an easy material, but in contrast, it is difficult
because we have to write about the thing that is exist and the thing
that does not exist, something that can not be seen, felt, smelt, or
even touched. Therefore, the writer is so interested to find whether
students will write a descriptive text better by looking or even
touching pictures than only imagining it.
not only can be done in spoken but also in written. It is not an easy
job to do because the writer has to be able to pour the idea as good as
possible to what will they write. It is done to convey the message to
the reader clearly. That is why writing is considered as the most
difficult skill to learn.
In their book entitled “Writer’s Guide and
Index to English”, Wilma R. Ebbit and David R. Ebbit stated that
“writing is the act of joining words into sentences on paper”. It means
that writing is not just exercising the fingers but it is also
necessarily the act of finding words to express definite, fully formed
ideas. Writing activity is done to find out what are thinking, what is
looking, and what it mean.
A paragraph is a
group of related sentences that expands a statement by explaining it,
illustrating it, or proving it. It is not easy in making a good
paragraph because we have to apply many components into the paragraph we
Barnet & Stubb’s in their book entitled
Practical Guide to Writing stated that it is commonly said that a
paragraph has components itself:
Unity makes one point or
it indicates where one unit of a topic begins and ends. The idea
developed in each paragraph often appears, briefly stated as a topic
sentence. Topic sentences are most useful and are therefore especially
common in essays that offer arguments. They are much less common because
they are less useful in narrative and descriptive essays.
means that the point or unit is developed according to some patterns. A
paragraph needs more than a unified point. It needs a reasonable
organization or sequence. Exactly how the parts of a paragraph will fit
together depends on what the paragraph is doing. If it is describing a
place, it may move from general view to significant details or from some
immediately striking details to some less obvious but perhaps more
important one. If a paragraph is classifying (dividing a subject into
its parts) it may begin by enumerating the parts and go on to study each
in climactic order.
Among the common methods of organizing a paragraph are:
1. General to particular (topic sentence usually at the beginning)
2. Particular to general (topic sentence usually at the end)
3. Enumeration of parts or details (in climactic order)
4. Question and answer
5. Cause and effect
is not enough to write unified and organized paragraphs. The unity and
organization must be coherent. That is sufficiently clear so that the
reader can follow the train of thought. Coherence is achieved largely by
means of transitions and repetition.
C. The study of Descriptive Paragraph
paragraph is a paragraph which consists of three important qualities
such as dominant impression, mood, and logical development. It is used
to give vivid details of an object either it is person, place, or thing.
Descriptive paragraphs include details that appeal to the five senses:
sight, taste, touch, smell, and hearing. In a descriptive paragraph, the
writer must convey information that appeals to all the senses, in order
to give the best possible description to the reader. There are five
ways to create possible description:
a. Start with what the reader
can see. Since sight is the most helpful sense, any good descriptive
paragraph must first discuss what the writer wants the reader to
visualize. Using strong adjectives to illustrate your scene, moment,
experience or item to the reader will help provide a visual picture in
your reader's mind.
b. Describe smells and tastes. Think about how
you can describe the topic, scene, or moment to the reader in terms of
how it smells and tastes. The best descriptive paragraphs use a whole
slew of adjectives that make the reader feel as if they were actually
experiencing the thing you're describing, and not just reading about it.
Include a sentence or two about how your topic smells and use a few
poignant adjectives to relay the smell of it to the reader. "It tastes
good" is not going to provide a specific experience for your reader.
However, "It tastes like Grandma's apple pie when it's fresh and still
bubbling around the edges - crunchy, flavorful and sweet" helps describe
the distinct flavor of your item. Smell and taste should provide the
most helpful descriptions about your item, so try to make these most
c. Say how the moment or item feels. As you continue
writing your paragraph, write a sentence or two about how the experience
feels. What does it remind you of as you imagine yourself running your
hand along its surface, or the tingling feeling you feel run down your
back? How are you reacting to the moment? Again, use descriptive
adjectives to describe how the moment feels. Avoid using general
statements like "it feels nice", which isn't descriptive at all. Opt for
specific, definitive examples that relay the feeling of something to
d. Mention the sounds of the moment. What can you hear?
Is there a deafening silence? If there is a buzzing sound, avoid simply
saying "All of a sudden I heard a loud buzzing sound", rather "I jerked
as all of the sudden I heard an indefinable buzzing sound, so loud I put
my hands over my ears. I assumed it was the deafening fire alarm..."
and the reader would be able to relate with the "fire alarm"
description, as most people have experienced the startling noise of a
e. Include some other literary components. Using other
effective writing techniques to top off your paragraph will make it all
that more professional. If you include all these elements in your
paragraph, your reader will be able to fully experience and appreciate
In a descriptive paragraph, the writer must convey
information that appeals to all the senses - touch, taste, sight, smell
and sound - in order to give the best possible description to the
reader. This is easily accomplished by following these descriptive
paragraph writing tips. Descriptive writing paints a picture in words
that shows – not tells – what a person, place or thing is like. The
purpose of descriptive writing is to paint a picture with words for the
The basic of all good description is close observation. It
needs a store of particulars to draw on. If the purpose is to picture an
object, place, or person as any careful observer would see it, the
details we choose will supply specific information about size, shape,
weight, and color. If the purpose is to have audience experience the
subject as we have experienced it, we might select different details or
we might use the same details but treat them differently, emphasizing
some, subordinating others, and choosing modifying words and phrases
that convey mood, attitude, or judgment.
D. Definition of Picture
a teaching process, teacher needs such thing to support fluency of the
teaching learning process itself. Teaching is not only how to transfer
knowledge but also how to make the students more understand. So, any
media such as picture is very helpful to support the teaching learning
process in a class.
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/picture, picture is a visual
representation or image painted, drawn, photograph, or otherwise
rendered on a flat surface. A picture can also be defined as a visual
representation of something such as a person, scene, produced on a
surface, as in a photograph and painting. Picture as reflection thing is
not only provides an important aids to interpreting primer and
first-reader stories, but they also contribute to development of
language ability and serve to widen experience background. Pictures can
be used to give clues to class records.
Now, the point is that
picture can be very helpful in a teaching learning process because it
supports the material that teacher give. It also enables the teacher to
teach the material to the students.
E. The using of Picture in Writing a Descriptive Paragraph
running a learning process, a teacher is required to be able to create
an exciting and educating learning process. Besides, a teacher also must
have responsibility in creating a good learning environment. One of the
ways is by creating or choosing appropriate learning media.
choosing of the appropriate learning media will be very much helpful for
the students to reach the aim of learning. It means that not all of
medias can help the realization of the aim of learning, it will happen
when the media used by teacher is not appropriate with the need.
Sometimes, teacher needs media in teaching process but sometimes not
depends on the material given. In this case, in writing a descriptive
paragraph, media such as picture is very helpful.
Look at the example of descriptive paragraph below:
is my classroom. It is a comfortable classroom. My friend and I are
sitting at our desks. We are learning English. Our teacher is Miss Maya.
She is a good teacher. Now, she is reading a book. My friends and I are
listening to her carefully. Then, we write what she says with our pen.
The teacher’s desk is in the left corner in front of the class. It is
covered with a table cloth and vase with flowers on it. The blackboard
with a box of chalk is hung in the wall in front of the class. A map of
Indonesia is in the left wall next to the picture. There are also
dustbin and a broom in the left corner in back of the class. We clean
our classroom everyday before the class begins.
paragraph above can be written by looking at the picture. It can enable
to write a descriptive paragraph as good as possible.
Descriptive paragraph paints a picture in words that shows not tells
what a person, place or thing is like. The purpose of descriptive
paragraph is to paint a picture with words for the reader. Teacher will
use a variety of strategies to describe the elements of descriptive
paragraph. It is best for all strategies to be modeled a few times and
for the information to be displayed in the class.
Some of these ways
will be possible to do to prove whether a picture can be very helpful or
not. Students close their eyes as the teacher reads a short passage for
students to visualize. Students open their eyes without talking, draw a
picture using as much detail as possible, and add a few words if
necessary. Next, the teacher will read a well written descriptive
passage and students are to do the same exercise as above.
visualization process, teacher will begin a discussion about descriptive
paragraph and how a good description allows readers to visualize a
picture in their heads. Teacher will compare the different and show how
the less descriptive passage did not give the students enough details to
create a good picture in their minds, while the other passage did allow
them to create a vivid picture in their minds.
data were gained from some sources like book and internet. The sources
gained are absolutely related to the topic or themes. The data then were
explored and discussed as good as possible.
is thus a culmination of the process of creating a visual image with the
help of words and senses. It is not easy create a picture in mind by
using words. We need such kind of pictures to enable in making a
descriptive paragraph. Descriptive text is to give the brief explanation
from the object clearly about person, place or things as if the reader
can visualize and feel it. It usually uses the present tense.
Descriptive text has two generic structures, they are identification and
description. Identification is to identify phenomenon to be describe.
Meanwhile description is to describe parts, qualities and
There are three kinds of descriptive writing
according to George and Julia (1980: 379), there are three kinds of
descriptive writing. They are describing people, place and units of
It usually describes people who are interesting to
read. Their appearance is interesting especially when describes
personality. Character may be described directly or indirectly. In
direct description, the writer tells how the person looks like and what
the person is like. In indirect description, the character is revealed
through what he or she does, thinks, or says in certain situations. The
text below is one of the examples from describing people.
Monica is an Indonesian pop music singer, dancer, and actress. She is a
beautiful and attractive girl. She has straight and long hair. She is
tall and slim girl. Beside that she also has sharp nose and skin white.
She has a beautiful smile and friendly to everyone. Most people like
her, because she has a good characteristic of voice when she is singing.
She always looks good performance when she is on the stage. Therefore,
she becomes a trendsetter for young people.
for describing places; how places look, smell and sound is important.
The text below is an example from describing place.
My school is
located in a suburban area near Mahakam Street. It is near the greatest
landmark. It is one of the best schools in our town. My school is not
small at all. The library is in front of the school building. It has a
cozy playground at the back and 27 large classrooms to study. There is a
large basketball field in the middle. There are two toilets, one for
male and the other for females. And of course, it has 3 laboratories for
chemistry, biology, and physics. The school building consists of
two-stair-classroom, upper classrooms and lower classrooms. The canteen
is the students’ most favorite place.
• Units of time
of units of time is often used to determine mood. It is full of
descriptions of seasons, days, or times of day. The description of units
of time set a certain mood, or emotional characteristic. The text below
is an example from describing units of time.
It was a fine autumnal
day, the sky was clear and serene, and nature wore that rich and golden
livery which we always associate with abundance. The forests had put on
their sober brown and yellow, while some trees of the tendered kind had
been nipped by the frosts into brilliant dyes of oranges, purple, and
scarlet. Streaming files of wild ducks began to make their appearance
high in the air; the bark of the squirrel might be heard from the groves
of beech and hickory nuts, and the pensive whistle of the quail at
intervals from neighboring stubble – field.
on the data finding and analysis, it can be concluded that the using of
picture in writing a descriptive paragraph is very useful. It can also
improve student’s ability in writing a descriptive paragraph. Using
picture can create an interesting atmosphere in the language learning
a. In every language learning process
the teacher is supposed to be able to choose an appropriate learning
media so that it can create an active, creative, effective, interesting,
and exciting atmosphere in the teaching learning process.
Picture is one of the media which can be found everywhere. It is easy to
find is out, it can be borrowed or even can be created by the students.
So, English teacher should use it particularly in a process of
descriptive text learning.
Barnet Sylvan. 1983. Practical Guide to Writing. New York: Little Brown and Company
Ebbitt, Wilma R., and Ebbitt, David R. 1939. Writer’s Guide and Index to English. New York: Scott Foresman and Company.
George E and Julia M. Burks. 1980. Let’s Write English. New York: Litton Educational Publishing, Inc.
Harris, David P. 1979. Testing English as a second language. Bombay: TMH Publishing Company Ltd. Wishon.
Margaret Keenan and Pavlik, Cheryl. 1990. Interactions II: A Writing
Process Book. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Warren, Thomas L. 1985. Technical Writing: purpose, Process, and Form. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/picture. Accessed in December 2009.
Sunday, December 23, 2012
Label: KUMPULAN CONTOH SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS THE USING OF PICTURE TO IMPROVE STUDENT’S ABILITY IN WRITING A DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH
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