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SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS TO INCREASE STUDENT’S MOTIVATION TO SPEAK ENGLISH



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
            A. Background of the Study
Nowadays, in big cities, it is no longer strange to get children speaking English everywhere even in public transportations. This situation invites any jealous from adolescents or adult learners. Every time adult learners see a child who speaks a foreign language fluently, the learners regret not having started learning the foreign language earlier. It is widely believed that the earlier people start learning a second language, the more successful they will be. People regretting are subconsciously showing their new motivation to speak English. Children speaking English, in fact could be particular motivation for adults to learn English. Earlier means children ages, about the years of 7-14. This is the ages of primary students.
Why do adults have difficulty in learning English? Because from the children ages, interest and motivation of speaking English were never be cultivated on them. Another reason is that the lack of English educational materials taught to them. The phenomenon of hundred thousand students who did not pass the final examination because of their English proves the English inadequacy of students’ proficiency. The root of this inadequacy must be coming from elementary school students, where they gain the fundamental of English. Having lack motivation since the children ages invites bigger trouble in the future. First trouble is that we are lack of motivation underlying rare practices affecting on the speaking ability. Regarding to the proof, the researcher believes that it is too late to begin building motivation in adults or teenagers learner. Since motivation plays a very crucial role in learning English especially in encouraging people to speak English, motivation should be built from the children age.
Why it should be children in the first place to be molded to have big motivation to speak? Since children are more successful L2 learners than adults (Troike 2006), the writer believes that children should be engrafted earlier. Respecting the above issue, the ways to build or increase motivation to speak is rarely found. The classic matter is that now children are also involved in the outworn paradigm, “Learning English is Hard”. To negate this destructive paradigm the teachers have to provide a stronger circumstance than this. From the school, the place where children perceive English materials, teachers begin to think of effective ways. The effective ways is not enough to grow up the interest, there should be other stimulant.
After talking much about motivation affecting people to speak English, now is the turn to discuss the “how to”. How to increase the motivation from the children age is very essential, since adults’ motivation can be easily affected just by looking at the good children performances in speaking English. In increasing motivation, the children should firstly have the interest in learning English. As stated by Efendi and Praja (1989) that learning with interest is better than without any interest, the researcher begin to concern on how children can have any interest in learning English which lead them to the increased motivation to speak. Students’ interest can occur in an enjoyable and animated situation.
However, many schools now decide their own material to be taught in the classroom as long as it can achieve the basic competence regulated by the government. The spread of material given is uncontrolled. As the case there can be one material given in one school, yet we cannot find it at others. It would be just fine, if the material is not really worth to increasing the students’ motivation. Problems of motivation then emerge because there are materials that in fact can increase the children motivation while it is not given to the students.
Regarding that the researcher found that children motivation need to be promoted earlier with the supporting material, introduction material need to be taught in every elementary school. This material will be useful for their entire life and from the teacher improvement perspective, teacher can teach the students “how to use English” not “how to learn English”.
B. Statements of the problem
Due to the background, the researcher addresses these following questions:
  1. How does the introduction material increase students motivation in differ between students about the years of 7 and 14.
  2. Which grade in the years of 7 is more meaningful to implement introduction material to?
C. Scope of the Study
 This research will focus on the motivation to speak English, because speaking English considered has so many troubles to do. It will be compare children and teenager, about the years of 7-14. This is the ages of primary students.

D. Purpose of the Study
  1. To increase the motivation from the children age and since adults motivation can be easily affected just by looking at the good children performances in speaking English
  2. To prepare the students who are able to speak English well.
  3.  This material will be useful for their entire life and from the teacher improvement perspective, teacher can teach the students “how to use English” not “how to learn English”.
  4. This research in general is aimed to stimulate discussions on what’s good to teaching English in term of increasing students’ motivation to speak English since the children ages focused on the materials given.
E. Assumption of the Study
This research is conducted on the following assumption:
1. This study will be addressed in the concerning on promoting children motivation to speak English. Then the result of this study will affect three parties: government, teachers, and the students itself.
2. In short, it will provide a new way for all educationists to view the children and its material in term of enhancing students’ motivation to speak English earlier. And the result will give you further evidence on the students perspectives toward the material taught.
F. Definition Operational
1. Speaking English
Speaking means capable or involving speech. Brown (2001:165) stated that speaking is an aspect that needs special attention and instruction. And also the situation for oral practice activity may be troubled to some students. Therefore some visual materials may provide invaluable helps to the students who speak out (Hymes Rell, 1978:14).
Speaking English is regarded as the most applicative skill. People regretting are subconsciously showing their new motivation to speak English. Children speaking English, in fact could be particular motivation for adults to learn English. . Strongly related to the social live is speaking English for sure. This English ability contains high relevancy toward the social and educational live and people can read and write well.
2. Motivation
 As Ball (1957) claims, ‘motivation is a central concept in any theory of education.’ Therefore, it is essential to demonstrate different points of view on definitions of motivation in order to achieve a better understanding of the role of motivation in language learning. Brown in 2002 argued that motivation is a complex phenomenon and is made up of many components, both internal and external. Brown stated, students are recommended to have more applicative material because they need not only to learn language but significantly also to use language.
3. The Material
Related to the introduction material that they will use for their entire live in meeting and knowing new people and social lives, Thornton (2001:12) has the following to say on the importance of motivation:
“…some experts go so far as to say that motivation is more important than the learners’ aptitude or the method of teaching employed. One thing teachers are sure of, however, is that fun and games are a must in the English language classroom because they are intrinsically motivating for children and again, because they are part of a child’s natural world: the “here and now” of a child’s life.”
Further, Philips (2001:5) argues that “younger learners respond to language according to what it does or what they can do with it, rather than treating it as an intellectual game or abstract system. Introduction as a beginner level material can lot of motivate primary children to speak as what Moon (2000:3) points out that young learners learn a foreign language:
·         through motivated by teacher
·         by listening and repeating.
·         by imitating the teacher. They want to please the teacher. They feel embarrassed when they make mistakes.
At this point, it is obvious that the applicative material is playing a crucial role for shaping and fostering children’s motivation in learning. In this case, that is introduction material.



CHAPTER II
REVIEW OR RELATED LITERATURE
1. Motivations
As Ball (1957) claims, ‘motivation is a central concept in any theory of education.’ Therefore, it is essential to demonstrate different points of view on definitions of motivation in order to achieve a better understanding of the role of motivation in language learning. According to Ball (ibid), motivated students refer to those who wish to do things that teachers expect, while unmotivated students are the ones who are unwilling to do things based on teachers’ expectation. In contrast with teachers, psychologists (e.g. Lewin, 1952 et al) study the concept of motivation to a greater extent. Lewin, a member of the cognitive school, emphasizes that learning itself is motivation which determines success. However, Bruner (1966) seems not to be in line with this suggestion, arguing that when learners are forced or pushed to learn, they might fail to maintain their natural curiosity. In contrast, Beard and Senior (1980), two behaviorist psychologists, believe that ‘incentives and rewards’ are motivations for establishing behavior. Spencer (1959) appears to support this idea, suggesting that it is primarily important for teachers to apply various types of ‘rewards’ to stimulate students to possess ‘interests and goals’ in the performance of tasks.
2. The Urgency of Increasing Primary Students Motivation
Improving student motivation is one of the keys to improve education in general and language learning in particular. Cultivate children motivation should be build earlier as what Dweck (1986) said that reforms are beginning at the earliest possible level so that children are able to achieve higher in later years. In fact, the role of learners’ motivation in learning a second language has been examined by many researchers who are interested in this subject area (e.g. Belmechr and hummel, 1989 et al).
Besides, children have limited life and learning experience. Adults, in comparison, do not enter the FL classroom as virgin tabula rasa, but bring in a wealth of background knowledge and a long history of learning experiences on which the teacher can effectively capitalize to facilitate their learning; specialized by Pratt Johnson (2006:14) as they are all already masters of one language, frequently having the additional invaluable experience of learning another.
One of the strong urgencies convinced by Harmer (1998:8)While real motivation comes from within each individual, young learners rarely have clear motivation; they may come to class simply taking it for granted, or because they like the teacher. They will all at once be less able to assume responsibility for their learning supported by a reset in Oxford (1990) to use the metacognitive strategies of focusing, arranging, planning, monitoring, and evaluation in effect also ruling out any serious attempt at large-scale comparative assessment of their progress. Older, especially adult students will know the importance and see the point of study.
3. How to Increase Primary students Motivation
One of the key principles in the issue of teaching children is that of attitude and motivation.
In this respect, Argondizzo (1992:6) propounds the view that “most children who start foreign language instruction do not have autonomous motivation to learn a foreign language.” Children will learn better if they are motivated and want to do it. Supported by Pintrich and Schunk (2002:245) stating it is very important for children to have intrinsic motivation, referring to ‘motivation to engage in an activity for its own sake’.
It is possible to enhance children’s motivation by creating an appropriate environment and using proper teaching methods and materials. By stressing meaningful aspects of learning tasks, encouraging pupils to have clear and specific goals, promoting perceptions of good speaking ability, and giving activities that are challenging but within their competence, children might be more intrinsically motivated to learn English.
According to Ryan and deci (2000), ‘intrinsic motivation generally refers to motivation to engage in an activity because that activity is enjoyable and satisfying to do.’ Dörnyei (2002) indicates that the result is in accordance with his theoretical proposition that task motivation is “fuelled by a combination of situation-specific and generalized motives” (p. 151). His model for a motivational L2 teaching practice comprises four main dimensions:
  • Creating the basic motivational conditions, namely, laying the foundations of motivation through establishing a good teacher-student rapport, a pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere, and a cohesive learner group with appropriate group norms.
  • Generating initial motivation, that is, “whetting the students’ appetite” by using strategies designed to develop positive attitudes toward the language course and language learning in general, and to increase the learners’ expectancy of success.
  • Maintaining and protecting motivation through promoting situation-specific task motivation (e.g., by designing stimulating, enjoyable, and relevant tasks), by providing learners with experiences of success, by allowing them to maintain a positive social image even during the often face-threatening task of having to communicate with a severely limited language code, and finally, by promoting learner autonomy.
  • Encouraging positive retrospective self-evaluation through the promotion of adaptive attributions and the provision of effective and encouraging feedback, as well as by increasing learner satisfaction and by offering grades in a motivational manner.
Differ from him, Pintrich and Schunk said that motivation is to stress meaningful aspects of learning tasks. They say that authentic tasks that have meaning in the real world should be stressed in the classroom.
4. The Urgency of Supporting Material for Promoting Children Motivation to Speak English
Brown in 2002 argued that motivation is a complex phenomenon and is made up of many components, both internal and external. The second or foreign language learners who either intrinsically or extrinsically meet their needs in learning the language will be positively motivated to learn.
Regarding to what’s Brown stated, students are recommended to have more applicative material because they need not only to learn language but significantly also to use language.
Related to the introduction material that they will use for their entire live in meeting and knowing new people and social lives, Thornton (2001:12) has the following to say on the importance of motivation:
“…some experts go so far as to say that motivation is more important than the learners’ aptitude or the method of teaching employed. One thing teachers are sure of, however, is that fun and games are a must in the English language classroom because they are intrinsically motivating for children and again, because they are part of a child’s natural world: the “here and now” of a child’s life.”
Further, Philips (2001:5) argues that “younger learners respond to language according to what it does or what they can do with it, rather than treating it as an intellectual game or abstract system. Introduction as a beginner level material can lot of motivate primary children to speak as what Moon (2000:3) points out that young learners learn a foreign language:
·         through motivated by teacher
·         by listening and repeating.
·         by imitating the teacher. They want to please the teacher. They feel embarrassed when they make mistakes.
At this point, it is obvious that the applicative material is playing a crucial role for shaping and fostering children’s motivation in learning. In this case, that is introduction material.
5. Speaking as a Language Skill                                                  
Previously, people conceived that language in daily term in spoken. Certainly, its reality that spoken dominated the communication activities in any field for long time. It has been confirmed by chimombo (1987:207), that’s in teaching and learning activities. For example, the teacher need much talk to encourage their pupils to engage in genuine communication in the classroom, while the students outside the classroom set large opportunities to community freely.
               Among the four language skill (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) speaking as the second skill needs to comprehend by the people chronologically in their life. In fact, the firs time we come to the world just proud of our ear to listen our mother or father, siblings and surroundings. Then we tried to utter some common words we had heard under the guidance of our parents. These process some trough and continually all days, all nights or in whole of our life. Finally, we was permitted and recognized the symbol in written by reading some printed materials and demanded to write them (Tarigan 1986:1).
               When discussions come to the term of speaking, the writer firstly, intends to come up what the expression of the linguistic that “language is speaking and also speaking is language” (Grand and Pretty 1971:39-40) in Tarigan (1986:4) stated that speaking is closely related to vocabulary improvement to students receive from reading and listening activities. It needs to be realized that the skill needed in speaking activity it seems the same or least similar for the sake of affective communication orally.
6. Speaking as Way of Communication
               In the sequence of people’s daily life, they need to talk, to utter or to speak anything in his mind to come up his desires to one another. The capability in transmitting the ideas to the spoken language is particularly need. In the other, people (interlocutor) will satisfy aids as much as possible sympathetic to our utterance (Anderson in Tarigan 1986:6)
               Speaking is the ability ion uttering articulated sound or expressing the words, phrases, sentences, stating the ideas, desired and willingness, through the audible (sound uttered) or visible (body language) with a well arrange combine ideas (Mulgrave in Tarigan 1986:13).
               Brooks(1964: 30-31) in Tarigan (1986: 16-17) stated several common speaking principles stand of the speaking activity, namely, involved two people or more, used linguistic codes or symbols conventionalized, the exchanged activities of the participants, connect the communicator with another (interlocutor) immediately, currently process, involved local and auditory apparatus, indiscriminate the fact and what is accepted as the rules.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHDOOLOGY

A. Research Design
            This research employs action research design .One way to find out scientific truth is trough investigation or research. In research there are many things that research easily and effective to conduct. After determine the method, which is used in the study, the methodology this research is descriptive.
            The expert state “descriptive research is non-hypothesis research, so in the research there is no need to make hypothesis”, (Suharsimi Arikunto, 1985:139). The other expert states “descriptive is the research that is purposed to give this signs, facts or events systematically and accurately, about population.
            Based on the both statement above, the means of descriptive research are to describe, present, and illustrate the data about the fact or phenomena researched. That’s way in this research will presenting and illustrates the data through spread of the text script to the sample about increasing the motivation to speak English skill at the years ages of 7-14.
B. Data Collection
The researcher will then gather the data needed by employing observation and close-ended interview. Observation is done to monitor the performances and the motivation to speak of students from both levels of the year’s ages. It is also conducted to have wider understanding on “what’s going on” from taught material point of view. The observation done several times before finally the researcher found an imprecise answer to what she was seeking for. That was the material to increase students’ motivation to speak and hopefully to others English skills. Participant observation is regarded in the best position to collect data about the observable features of the interaction between teacher and students when s (he) is teaching introduction material. To strengthen the argument of the researcher, close-ended interview is also employed. The students will be investigated after having introduction material in the class. The child will have it in English, whereas the teenager will have it in Indonesia. The same questions for all the samples though those are presented in different language.
3. Data analysis
As the result of the observation, the first method, the data would be analyzed by firstly comparing the data collected from each level of ages. It should be done with the focus of evaluation of the material given in its role to motivate students to speak
Secondly, as the researcher also employs close-ended interview which is just “yes or no” questions, the result from the interview will be counted according to the students answer to each question.
4. Sample
This qualitative research will have one child and one teenager. The one child who year’s age 7 will be labeled as “first class” and the teenager who year ages 14 will be labeled as “second class”. Both samples will be compared in the boundaries of their class performances including their willingness to speak, their interests, and their motivation affected by the material given, “introduction” material. In order from the comparison the researcher could discover characterization between adolescents and children, the range of materials need, and the impact of “Introduction” material learning process. This sample are chosen because they are unmotivated English Learners indicated by low marks of this subject.


CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Result
First of the advantage is to create change upon the certain less applicative material to be taught to primary children, as the result “action”. Secondly as the result of the “research”, this research will provide many new understandings on what materials to be given without neglecting learners characteristic and other aspects influencing learning process. The researcher found that it is very essential to motivate children to learn English since their children age. Giving material which is relevant with their live is applicative for them. Applicative material is easy to be implemented anywhere, anytime and with anyone. One of the applicative materials found useful to be learnt since children age is “introduction material” which is now given in the teenager.
From the data collected, we found of motivation gained by the children and the teenagers. The children show that this introduction material attracts them to learn English again and again. In contrast we found less interest from the teenager. They tend to be boring which makes it run ineffectively. The result also shows that most of them already recognize well “how to introduce”. The last, the researcher found that the children need this material more than the teenager. According to the condition above in the first paragraph, it is important for them to learn English since children age. Then it gives them more motivation to speak English than it is for the teenager.

B. Discussion
Firstly discuss the data collected from one by one specific answer delivered by the twenty respondents. For the first question, more than half of the respondents respond it positively. Speaking English is something they like to do. Good beginning. It means that they already have good start to learn speaking English. Teachers just need to support them appropriately by giving them, in this case, more challenging material than just a little of “introduction”. The materials should be to appropriately support the development of motivation so that there is a proper foundation for optimal educational growth. However the data collected from the teenager interview negate the statement before. The result is totally different with those from teenager where almost all students responded negatively on the questions given. The children, on the other hand, gave positive respond to the questions.


          

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion
To sum up, it is very important for the Indonesia government to pay more attention on how children learn language and how to meet the learner needs. In accordance with the result, the researcher expects that the government be willing to reconsider the education policy. Since the result of this mini research prove to you that the English material given to the students in various levels does not meet yet the need of the students.
Another thing which is important is that students should be able to use the language since the earlier age. Then they will not have any barrier to learn it in the adult age. Giving the easy material and motivate them from the children age should be done well to increase their willingness in learning language.
B. Suggestion
Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommended it for three parties who are taking part in the flow of education. Thus, it is addressed for the government, teachers, and students.
First, the government is suggested to be more selective in deciding the materials given from each level of education. The researchers suggest that the material should touch the nature of learners in order to make them eager to learn English better. The materials themselves are emphasized as such kind of applicative materials which are appropriate to be implemented not only in the teaching learning process but also in students’ daily life. The students are hopefully able to apply it everywhere, every time, and with everyone they deal with. To English teachers, the researchers have a big expectation of the betterment on their ways of teaching. They should be able to find an effective ways of teaching certain materials in an attempt to raise students’ motivation. In addition, teachers are expected to be able to organize the intended materials into the useful one by giving them a relevant method in delivering the material. Teacher education therefore must urgently provide better models for teaching English. The students’ perceptions toward the materials given should be in positive ways, don’t let the students perceive that the material being present means nothing for them, for their lives, just because the teachers give no feedback to the students. It is what we called as meaningful learning. Regarding students as the main subject of this research, it is also recommended for them not to be rebel in receiving the material. Whatever the material given, they must be able to take more advantages. They must enable themselves to engage well with any material they got.
Moreover, for the recommendation of further study, the researchers suggest other researchers who have a big concern in enhancing students’ motivation to focus on more specific detail since this study has a limited setting; it may not be appropriate to be implemented in other settings




CHAPTER VI
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Arikunto, Suharsimi.2002. Prosedur Penelitian. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta.
Tarigan, H. Guntur. 1990. berbicara Sebagai Suatu Keterampilan Berbahasa.
            Bandung Angkasa.s
Slattery, M and Jane Willis. (2001) English for Primary Teachers.
Oxford: Oxford University Press
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