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KUMPULAN PTK BAHASA INGGRIS ENGLISH COMMUNICATION COMPETENCY IMPROVEMENT ON SPOKEN AND WRITTEN NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH “VCD CUTTING” MEDIA IN SEMARANG 7 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL


A. Background of the Research.
  
              The implementation of the 2004  curriculum was started step by step in the academic year 2004/2005. There were significant changes from 1994  curriculum. These changes may cause  some problems for most English teachers to implement the curriculum in the classroom
            Thewriter teaches at  Semarang  7 Senior High School  which on the academic year  2004/2005 has started to implement  2004 curriculum. The new thing for the writer is that the 2004 curriculum suggested English teachers  to use text type or genre based instruction. This means that rasionally,  places language as  function. One of the function of language is to deliver message, instruction, describtion of a thing or a person, telling stories, delivering procedure, expressing opinion, critizizing, etc.  
            According to the book of  Standard Competence for English lesson for Senior High School  students  2004 curriculum, standard competence which should be mastered by the students is  that they should be able to communicate in spoken and written English    acceptably  and accurately in interactional dan short monolog especially on  procedure, description, report, news item, narrative, recount/ spoof, exposition, discussion, explanation and review text. These texts are known as text types or ”genre” which really someting new for students as well as teachers. Because the 1994 curriculum was a kind of thematic based instruction.
            It was mentioned in the Competency Based Curriculum that narrative text should be given  to grade XII students. And the method  of teaching English  suggested in the curriculum is bicycle , spoken and written. Each cycle covers four stages namely,  Building Knowledge of the field ”, Modelling Text, Joint Construction of the Text, and  Individual Construction of the Text” (CBC 2004).
            In teaching narrative text, what is meant by cycle here is different from that in action research. So the meaning of cycle, spoken and written  in teaching language has nothing to do with the meaning of cycle in action research. With these stages,  students are guided  to be able to create their own narrative texts  in spoken or written form.  According to the writer’s experience to teach in the classrom and the  discussion of  semarang 7 Senior High school English teachers  in MGMP ( English Teachers Forum), most problem faced by the students is when they reach the stage of  “Joint Construction of Text”  and  “Individual Construction of Text”  both in spoken or written cycle. The writer found the problem  when students  try to express and response meaning in  monolog text  using  spoken and written English accurately and acceptably. This difficulty effected  the students’ English score. They did not  reach the passing grade score.  On the graduation meeting academic year  2005/2006, It was decided that there were   31  students failed . Most of them were caused  by  English score  which did not reach the school passing grade.  For grade   X  was  61  and for grade  XI was  63. While  the students everage score who failed was  52.
            This problem had to  be resolved. The writer, therefore, tried to find a solution. Because  the problem was  to express and response meaning in  monolog text  using  spoken and written English accurately and acceptably ,  the writer tried to increase their performance  by using suitable , interesting and exciting media, film.  Average students at the age of  Senior High  like film stories that they watch  on   TV, VCD,  or movie. By watching the visualism of a story there would  be  ideas appeared  from them to  tell stories about the film they  watched in spoken or written form. The 2004 Curriculum also includes computer skill or Information Technology (IT)  as a cmpulsory subject. This  subject was very helpful for the students’ performance when they wre  studying English.  They could  tell stories in spoken or written  using  media   Microsoft Office PowerPoint  completed with  interesting colur, animation, and  VCD cutting  taken from motion pictures which  reflected  the stories  they presented in front of their classmates.
Through their presentation , two cycles, spoken and written could  be obtained at once.  Spoken cycle could be seen when  they told stories  about the film and  written cycle could be seen  on the   narrative  text which they wrote in  Power Point.  But  by using media VCD Cutting, is there any students’ improvement   to express and to response meaning in monolog text  in spoken and written form accurately and acceptably on narrative text?   The writer formulated this question  in a title : ENGLISH COMMUNICATION COMPETENCY IMPROVEMENT ON SPOKEN AND WRITTEN NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH “VCD CUTTING” MEDIA IN SEMARANG 7 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

B. Research Area.
            The area of the research  was  as the followings:
a.       The main material of the research was genre Narrative  and as the subject of the research was students of grade   XII  Language Program, semester 1:
1.      Cycle 1 : - Building knowledge of the Field. ( 6 p/ 3 meeting).
    - Modelling  Text ( 8 p/ 4 meeting).
2.      Cycle 2 : Joint construction of the  Text ( 8 p/ 4 meeting)
3.                                          Cycle 3 : Independent Construction of the Text ( 6 p/ 3 meeting )
b.      Process quality  : It was seen from the students’ participation in their group work and individual assignment.
c.       Result quality    : It was seen from the students’ score in mid semester test.
d.      Based on the background above the writer proposed a problem how to improve students English communication competency  on spoken and written narrative text through “VCD cutting” media in semarang 7 senior high school
e.       The  Primary problem could be elaborated into the following subproblems:
1.      How to improve studentss creativity  to express and to response meaning in monolog text  on spoken and written   narrative text accurately and acceptably?
2.      How to improve students’ activity  to express and to response meaning in monolog text  on spoken and written   narrative text accurately and acceptably?
3.      How to improve students’ cognitive score  to express and to response meaning in monolog text  on spoken and written   narrative text accurately and acceptably?

C. The Objectives of the research.
     In accordance with the above problems, the objectives of the research were:
1.      To improve students’ creativity  to express and to response meaning in monolog text  on spoken and written   narrative text accurately and acceptably.
2.      To improve students’ activity  to express and to response meaning in monolog text  on spoken and written   narrative text accurately and acceptably.
3.      To improve students’ cognitive score  to express and to response meaning in monolog text  on spoken and written   narrative text accurately and acceptably.
4.      To get school input from the teachers as the basis of making school decision so that it would fulfil the students’ need.

D. Review of Related Literature.
    a. Explanation of Terminology.
1.      Improvement. 
Improvement  is from the word improve which means  make or become better.   ( Hornby , 1973: 494). So what was meant by improvement in this research   was the improvement of the students learning achievement.  
According to  Moh. Uzer Usman,  to know the level of teaching  learning  achievement based on  the curriculum implemented were as the followings:
1.      Maximum  :  If all the learning  material is able to be mastered by the students.
2.      Very good / optimum  :  If most of the learning material  (85 % to  94 % is able to be mastered by the students.
3.      Good/ minimum :  If most of the learning material  (75 % to . 84 %. is able to be mastered by the students.
4.      Fail :  If  less than 75 % of the learning material is able to be mastered by the students.
2.      So what is meant by improvement in this action research was to create the best situation for students to improve their ability to to express and to response meaning in monolog text  on spoken and written   narrative text accurately and acceptably through  media “VCD Cutting” to reach  the minimal level of achievement ( school passing grade ).
3.      “VCD Cutting”.
 VCDCutting is the result of  cutting film from VCD using  VCD Cutter software.
4.      Teaching and  Learning Narrative Text.
Sardiman in  Sudibyo AP said that teaching and learning means teaching and learning activity  in interactive way between a teacher and students to reach  a learning objective ( Sudibyo AP, 2006: 6).

Narrative is a piece of text which tells a story and , in doing so , entertains or informs the reader or listener.  ( Mark & Kathy Anderson -  Book 2 : 8)
According to Tri Wiratno, Narrative text is a text functions a media to reconstruct   past experience. In general, narrative text is used to entertain readers or listeners by making past events alive again.. (Tri Wiratno, 2003:13).
According to CBC 2004  narrative text is a text which has the following characteristics: .
Social Function:
To amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious exoerience in different ways. Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to crisis or turning point some kind, which in turn find a resolution.
Generic Structure:
          ORIENTATION
      : sets the scene (when & where) and introduces participants/character (who)
         COMPLICATION
      : a crisis arises, something happened unexpectedly
         RESOLUTION
      : the crisis is resolved, for better or for worse
         RE-ORIENTATION
      : closing to the narrative (optional)
Language Features of Narrative:
        Specific participants, for example, John and Harry rather than senior high school students.
        Past tense form, because we are describing things that happened in the past.
        Words giving details of people, animals, places, things and actions such as adjectives and adverbs.                                                                        Connectors of time, such as last week, then, etc.
        Direct (the actual words spoken by a person), and reported or indirect speech ( the meaning of what the person said without using their actual words.) (Kurikulum 2004,2003:80)

So teaching and learning narrative text in this research means teaching and learning activity  in interactive way between a teacher and students to reach  learning objective -  to express and to response meaning in monolog text  on spoken and written   narrative text accurately and acceptably.

4. Spoken and Written Cycle.
            2004  Competency Based Curriculum differenciates  spoken and written cycle as follows:
            Cycles (modes) , spoken and written language are different in some cases: Spoken language  has many verbs , the complexities of  the connection between sentences, gambits and other fillers.  . William R. Lee uses  fillers such as  :  Well, You know/You see, etc.
While written mode, has the density of  vocabularies,  noun phrases, etc.   Realizing the differences CBC  2004  highlights the language features  of those two language modes. Hopefully, the language users  pay  a close attention  to  them  so that they will not tend  to use the language  “speaking like a book”  and  “ writing like casual conversation” (  CBC 2004 :12).

b. The Meaning  Media.

Media or medium means by which something is done. (Hornby 1973: 610). So in this research media means   any possible thing which is able to deliver  learning messages  in a communication so that it can stimulate students to learn.  (Kukuh, 2003). The media which is used in an instruction should be interactive  which means  media as instructional message deliverer involved students actively in the process of communication. So interactive instructional media  can be used to improve learning models . For example , by giving a model of a narrative text students can create other narratives.  
            The term  audio visual means all materials which present pictures and sound that can be combined as follows:
a. Paintings and recored human sound.
b. Paintings and music,
c. Photos, sound , music and  human sound..
d. . film with narration, sound effect and music.
2.      The need of media in  teaching and learning process.
            In teaching learning process, there will be a comminication between a teacher  a a message source and  students message receivers.
To plan teaching and learning activity a teaher should choose media which is really effective and efficient.  
 When the media is an interactive one, the students are not only as listeners or  wievers, but also  involved actively in the learning process.
More over, media can overcome the teacher’s lack for example it can present sound effect, pictures and motion so that the message delivered will be more interesting and real. The weakness of media is that it can not replace  teachers’ function.
Media will help teachers in  teaching and learning process such as:
a.       Media  audio with the native sound can help teachers and students  pronounce difficult letters and words correctly.
b.      Media help teachers and students  pronounce sentences and certain expressions using correct intonation.
c.       Modeling text helps students  use grammar and cultural setting correctly.
d.      Media presents information or message consitently and can be repeated whenever it is needed.
e.       Information and Technology Media ( radio, TV, Internet/ Computer) presents information or message  which overcome the limitation of time and place at once..

There are some choices of media which can be used  in the English teaching and learning activities :
1.      Tape recorder nd cassette with native speakers is very good for modeling pronounciation and intonation.
2.      Film, very good for modelling situation.
3.      LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), is a practical hard ware and more interesting than Video, OHP. LCd is connected to computer using VCD player and camera so that it can be  watched by the audience in the classroom.
4.      IT (Information Technology) or  ICT (Information Communication Technology), is a  multi media which can be improved through computer and internet where every person can possibly access learning information without the limitaion of time and place.
The usage  of media in teaching and lerning process at school to increase the quality of education has often  been done but  not all schols can do that. This is because of the condition of the school and the teachers’ lack of competence in instructional media.
From the explanation about media, the writer chose  media IT, computer and  LCD with  Microsoft Office Power Point and VCD Cutter software . Therefore,  the writer used available instructional source  (By Utilization)  and design instructional source  with  Power Point and VCD Cutting (By Design).

c. Learning Cycle.
       Hammond et.al ( 1992:17) divides language learning into 2 cycles, spoken and written language. Each cycle covered four steps, namely   Building Knowledge of the field, “Modelling Text”,  “Joint Construction of the Text”  and  “ Indpendent/ Individual Construction of the Text .

d. Way of Thinking
            What makes a good teacher? –Jeremy Harmer  answered the questions from the result of an interview with students from different countries, two of them are:
1.      They should make their lessons interesting so you don’t fall asleep in them.
2.      A teacher must love his/her job. If  he /she really enjoys his/her job that’ll make the lesson more interesting.
(Harmer,2003: 1)
     From this point of view, early reflection and the formulation of the problems, and the way how to solve the problem by making the situation of the class more interesting and enjoyable for both students and teachers by using VCD Cutting it was expected that the result of the teaching and learning on spoken written Narrative text
 for the students of Grade XII Language program  semester 1  , Semarang 7 Senior High
E. Research Methodology
a.  Action Hypothesis .
     Hypothesis  is a temporary assumption or theory of which the truth is still necessary to be investigated . (Suharsimi. 1998:68).
     Therefore, in this research, the hypothesis proposed was :
 “VCD cutting” media  ‘ could improve the English communication competency on spoken and written narrative text in semarang 7 senior high school academic year 2006/2007
 
b. Relevan Research.
­­­­           
            The use of accurate  research methodology  will not find  a speculative  truth  so that  it will really be an  objective, accurate research  and  able to be responsible for the research..
            Basically, the writer wanted to know  the  competency  of the students of grade XII  to express and response the meaning  in the monolog text  using spoken and written language accurately and acceptably on narrative text.

Planning of a research canbe devided onto 7 catagories , namely:

  1. historical research.
  2. development research
  3. case study
  4. co relational study
  5. causal comparative study
  6. experimental study
  7. action research
(Sumadi,1983:15)
Based on the above categories,  the relevant research  was  Action Research of which its procedure were : planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.

c.  Setting of the research

     This action research was conducted  in the early semester 1, on the mid of July until September  academic year 2006/2007 in Semarang 7 Senior High School for students of grade XII Language Program.  
  d. Subject of the Research.

            The subject of the research  was the students  of grade XII Language Program. The reason why this class was used as the sample of the research because the students in this class had got  the lesson about Information Technology (IT) so that it was easy for them  to insert VCD cutting in their presentation with  Microsoft Office Power Point.

e. Steps.
            This action research consisted of 3 cycles of which each cycle had  the following actions:
1. Preparation.
    1.  To construct teaching kits such as : development of syllaby, lesson plan, Narrative text material written in Microsoft Office Power Point completed with VCD Cutting.
    2. To construct peper and pencil test instrument for the pre and the post-test.
    3. To construct observation instrument for the individual and group work.
    4. To construct instrument to investiaget the students’ atutude towards the lesson.
  1. Implementation of the Action.
 a.  The first  stage , Building Knowledge of the field  (BKOF) ,   is very important for the students as it is the point at which overall knowledge of the cultural and social contexts of the topic is built and developed. It is also important for the students to have an understanding of the topic before they are asked  to write about it.
  b. The second stage,  Modelling of Text (MOT) , the students are given a model of the text type or  a genre they will be reading or writing.  There is an explicit focus  on analysing the genre through a model text related to the course topic.  
  c. The third stage,  joint construction of text (JOT) ,  the  aim is for the teacher to work with the students to construct  a similar text that has been modeled before. Further group  work may need to be done before the actual construction of the text begins. This may covers :
1.      gathering relevan information,
2.      having additional reading,
3.      watching the film chosen,
4.      learning how to do VCD cutting,
5.      writing  notes to be used as the basis for writing the text. If the students still have difficulties about the text, they are guided to be back to the modeling text or even to the building knowledge of the field.
6.      writing a short story based on the film they watched on Power Point.
7.        having group work presentation and supporting the students  in order to change the language from spoken to written mode. The emphasis at this stage is on the teacher giving guidance
d. The fourth stage , IndependentConstruction of Text (ICOT) . The students are  guided  to construct  their own writing. The teaher’s duty is being available to consult with the student individually as they need an assistance. The teacher’s role is to provide constructive comments to the student for his or her development.  
 According to CBC 2004 Senior High School , the text types which should be mastered by the students of grade XII are   narrative, explanation, discussion dan review.  The writer conducted action research on two cycles, spoken and written  for the students of grade XII Language Program , semester 1  who focused on the narrative text.

3. Observation .
                  On the stage of the observation  the writer (as the researcher) and the observer (other English teacher) were involved actively. The observation for the students performance was done by the researcher and the observer used focused rubric 

4. Evaluation   dan Reflection.
Evaluatin for the action in  each cycle  was done based on the principle that the teacher could rivise or made a remedial teaching in cycle 2 based on the data taken during the action in cycle 1. And the evaluation in cycle 3 based on the data taken from cycle 2 , so that the process of evaluation , the effectiveness of the action was not only measured based on the  result of the cognitive test but also measured based on  the focused observation assessment , performance and  atitude (affective)  assessments.

5. Method of Collecting Data.
            To cllect the data the writer designed the following instruments:
1.      Paper-pencil test.
2.      Rubric
3.      Performance assessment
4.      Systematic observation
5.      Portofolio
HAPTER II
REPORT OF THE ACIVITIES

A. Constructing  Lesson Plan.

LESSON PLAN

( LP)

Subject                            :    English Lesson
School                             :    Senior High School
Class/Semester                :    XII Language Program / 1
Genre                              :    Narrative
Cycles                             :    Spoken and Written
Time allotment                :    28  periods

I.  STANDARD COMPETENCE


1. Listening :
1.1 The ability to understand the meaning of formal transactional dialogues and interpersonal dialogues (sustained) accurately and acceptably in daily lives and to access knowledge.   
1.2. The ability to understand the meaning of monolog text, narrative accurately and acceptably in daily lives and to access knowledge.   
2. Speaking :
2.1 The ability to express the meaning of formal transactional dialogues and interpersonal dialogues (sustained) accurately and acceptably in daily lives and to access knowledge.   
1.2. The ability to express the meaning of monolog text, narrative accurately and acceptably in daily lives and to access knowledge.   

3. Reading :
3.1. The ability to understand the meaning of written monolog text, narrative accurately and acceptably in daily lives and to access knowledge.   

4. Writing:
4.1 The ability to express the meaning of monolog text, narrative accurately and acceptably in daily lives and to access knowledge.   

II. BASIC COMPETENCE
1. Listening  :

1.1 The students are able to response the meaning of formal transactional dialogues and interpersonal dialogues (sustained) accurately and acceptably in daily lives which includes expressions :  suggestions, request, complaint, possibility and ability to do something.  

  1.2. The students are able to response the meaning of spoken monologs accurately and acceptably in daily lives I relation to  narrative text.  

2. Speaking :

2.1. The students are able to express the meaning of formal transactional dialogues and interpersonal dialogues (sustained) accurately and acceptably in daily lives which includes expressions :  suggestions, request, complaint, possibility and ability to do something.  

  2.2. The students are able to express the meaning of spoken monologs accurately and acceptably in daily lives in relation to  narrative text.  

3. Reading :
3.1. The students are able to response the meaning of written  monologs accurately and acceptably in daily lives on narrative text.  

4. Writing:
4.1 The students are able to express the meaning of written monologs accurately and acceptably in daily lives in relation to  narrative text.  

III. INDICATOR

a. Actional Competence.
               1. Listening.
To response the  transactional and interpersonal dialogues   correctly, such as:

   suggestions, request, complaint, possibility and ability to do something.  


2. Speaking
To express the  transactional and interpersonal  dialogues  correctly, such as:

   suggestions, request, complaint, possibility and ability to do something, and to  express monolog, in the form of narrative.


               3.  Reading
                    To response / understand  monologs in the form of narrative.
               4.  Writing
     To express monolog in the form of narrative.

b. Linguistic Competence.
a.       Identify and use   “Past Tense”.
b.      Identify and use “relational process, material process, mental process and verbal process”
c.       Identify and use “adjectives and adverbs”.
d.      Identify and use “ Connectors of Time”
e.       Identify and use “Direct and Indirect Speech”.
f.       Identify and use “ gambits and Fillers”.

c. Sociocultural Competence
a.       To express message in communication with others correctly and acceptably according to the related culture.  

d. Strategic competence
a.       Working together in groups.
b.      Repeating words or sentences.
c.       Reading aloud.
d.      Reading more of related text.

e. Attitudes
a.       Having confidence to improve the ability to understand narrative text.
b.      Delivering presentation about the work of narrative in groups.
c.       Participating actively in discussing narrative text with the teacher or friends.
d.      Doing the assignments enthusiastically.

III.    MATERIAL
Action in the class room.
Expressions :

suggestions, request, complaint, possibility and ability to do something, and  Monolog  :

Narrative Text.


IV.        STEPS:

1.   Introduction :
Call the roll
Greeting
Review on the past lesson.
2.  Core :

Time
Stages/ Cycles
Activities and Materials

SPOKEN CYCLE

3 X 45 Minutes
Building knowledge of the field
(Literacy Principle : Conversion and  cultural knowledge)
a.       Exposing  tenses available in  narrative text.
b.      Sharing experience about stories stories students have heard or read and hobby of watching film.
c.       Discussing vocabulary around the topics of  narrative that are going to learn.
d.      Practicing Pronunciation, spelling and intonation.
e.       Identification of gambits and  fillers.
4 X 45
Minutes
Modelling of Text
(Literacy Principle: interpretation, reflection and problem solving)
a.       Giving model of narrative texts.
b.      Giving model of narrative text completed with  VCD Cutting  through LCD
c.       Discussing the content of the text..
d.      Discussing the generic structure of narrative text.
e.       Discussing how spoken  narrative text is constructed well so that it is easy to understand.

4X 45
Minutes
Joint construction
(Literacy Principle  : collaboration  and  language use)
a.       Practicing how to begin a conversation and to response it. .
b.      Practicing responses given to sustain the conversation.
c.       Constructing spoken narrative text in groups.
3 X 45
Minutes
Independent construction (Literacy Principle: language use)
a.       Constructing spoken narrative individually.

Time
Stages and Cycles
Activities and Materials

WRITTEN CYCLE

3 X 45
Minutes
Building knowledge of the field
(Literacy Principle : Conversion and  cultural knowledge)
a.       Exposing  tenses available in  narrative text.
b.      Sharing experience about stories the students have heard or read and hobby of watching film.
c.       Discussing vocabulary around the topics of  narrative that are going to learn.
4 X 45
Minutes
Modelling of Text
(Literacy Principle: interpretation, reflection and problem solving)
a.       Giving model of narrative texts.
b.      Giving model of narrative text completed with  VCD Cutting  through LCD
c.       Discussing the content of the text..
d.      Discussing the generic structure of narrative text.
e.       Discussing how written narrative text is constructed well so that it is easy to understand.

4X 45
Minutes
Joint construction
(Literacy Principle  : collaboration  and  language use)
a.       Constructing narrative text based on the film the students have watched in groups completed with Power Point  and VCD Cutting.
b.      Group work presentation about narrative text.

3 X 45
Minutes
Independent construction (Literacy Principle: language use)
a.       Constructing a written narrative text individually. .
b.      Publication.

3.  Closing
a.  Concluding the lesson taught.
b.   Giving home assignments.

V.   MEDIA, TEACHING AIDS AND SOURCE.

Media                   : VCD Cutting
Teaching aids        : Computer, LCD.
Source                   :          
2004 Competency Based Curriculum .
English Book For Grade XII  Pemkot Semarang.
Lantern to English , Harapan Baru , Surakarta
LKS MGMP Bhs Inggris Kota Semarang kelas XII

VI.            EVALUATION

1.      Paper and Pencil Test
2.      Performance
3.      Product
4.      Project
5.      Portfolio
                                                                  Semarang,    18 Juli  2006
Approved by
Headmaster,                                              Teacher,

Drs. Totok Widyanto                                Sri Muryati, SPd. 
NIP. 131415203                                       NIP. 130794346






C. Presentation.

By the end of the lesson you are expected to be able to:
v  understand the purpose of narrative
v  understand the generic structure of narrative.
v  understand the language features of narrative.
v  work with variety of narrative.
v  present your group work of narrative.
v  construct your own work of narrative.
v   publish your own work of narrative.
v  use language functions:
o   making a request, granting and declining a request
o   expressing suggestion.
o   expressing complaint
o   expressing possibility/impossibility
o   expressing ability/inability
v  Use grammar :
o   Past Tense
         
Section One: Building Knowledge of the Field.

A. SPOKEN

Activity 1
There are many different types of narratives. Do you know what they are?
1           Fable
2           legend
3           Romance
4           Real-life fiction
5           Historical fiction
6           Mystery
7           Fantasy
8           Science fiction
9           Diary-novels
10       Adventure
11       Fairy tale


Find the meaning of the different text types (or genres) above in the following box.

 Ingin lengkapnya , Silahkan klik Download

Bagikan :
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